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Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

1.What Are The Major EV Charging Standards Worldwide?

With the increasing support from various countries for electric vehicles and the construction of charging stations, charging standards have gradually formed four major regional and national standards in Europe, the United States, China, and Japan. Tesla, due to its early development of electric vehicles, has a large number of vehicles and has designed its own charging standards. Therefore, we say that there are currently five major charging standards worldwide.

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

The five major standard interfaces are the Chinese standard based on GB/T 20234, the North American standard CCS1 based on J1772, the European standard CCS2 based on IEC 62196, the Japanese standard based on CHAdeMO, and the Tesla standard based on NACS. Due to the inconsistent charging interfaces in different regions, the design of electric vehicle charging interfaces also needs to meet the charging standards of different regions or markets, otherwise charging cannot be carried out and the requirements of their standards and regulations cannot be met.

Below, we will discuss the differences between standard charging interfaces and interface circuits (handshake circuits) in different regions.

2. Chinese Charging Standards

The reference standards for the charging interface and handshake circuit of electric vehicles in China are GB/T 20234 and GB/T 18487.1 respectively. The maximum voltage of the AC charging interface is three-phase 440V AC, and the maximum current is 63A AC; The maximum voltage for DC charging is 1000V DC, with a maximum current of 300A DC under natural cooling and 800A DC under active cooling.

Table 1 Rated value of AC charging interface

Rated voltage
V
Rated current
A
250 10/16/32
440 16/32/63

Table 1 Rated value of DC charging interface

Rated voltage
V
Rated current
A
750 / 1000 80
125
200
250

Table 1. Rated values of GB/T standard AC/DC charging interfaces

Table 2  Electrical parameter values and functional definitions of contacts

Contact No./Identification Rated voltage and rated current Function definition
1—-(L1) 250 V 10 A/16 A /32 A AC (Single phase)
440 V 16 A/32 A /63 A AC (Three phase)
2—-(L2) 440 V 16 A/32 A /63 A AC (Three phase)
3—-(L3) 440 V 16 A/32 A /63 A AC (Three phase)
4—-(N) 250 V 10 A/16 A /32 A Neutral line(Single phase)
440 V 16 A/32 A /63 A Neutral line(Three phase)
5—-(      ) Protective grounding (PE), connect the ground wire of the power supply equipment and the vehicle electrical platform
6—-(CC) 0 V ~ 30 V 2 A Charging connection confirmation
7—-(CP) 0 V ~ 30 V 2 A Control pilot

Table 2. Electrical parameters and function definitions of GB/T standard AC and DC charging interface

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Figure 1. GB/T standard AC and DC charging port pin definition (power supply end view)

The reference interface circuit for the vehicle pile handshake is as follows:

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Figure 2. Reference circuit for handshake of GB/T standard AC charging vehicle piles

Of course, there may be slight differences in the interface circuit for different connection methods, but the principles are the same.

The handshake duty cycle of its CP signal is as follows:

Table A.2 Mapping relationship between duty cycle and charging current limit of electric vehicle detection

PWM duty cycle D Max. charging current Imax/A
D < 3% Charging not allowed
3% ≤ D ≤ 7% A 5% duty cycle indicates that digital communication is required and must be established between the charging pile and the electric vehicle before charging. Charging is not allowed without digital communication
7% < D < 8% Charging not allowed
8% ≤ D < 10% I max = 6
10% ≤ D ≤ 85% I max = ( D X 100) X 0.6
85% < D ≤ 90% I max = ( D X 100 -64) X 2.5 and I max ≤ 63
90% < D ≤ 97% Reserve
D>97% Charging not allowed

Table A.2 GB/T 18487 handshake standard for AC CP signals

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Figure 3. GB/T standard DC vehicle pile handshake reference circuit

3. North American Charging Standards

North American charging standards are mainly used in the United States and Canada. The maximum AC voltage is 240V AC and the maximum current is 80A AC; the maximum DC voltage is 1000V DC and the maximum current is 400A DC.

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

 Table 4. Rated values of North American AC/DC charging interfaces

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide
Table 5. Electrical parameters and function definitions of American standard AC and DC charging interface terminals

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Figure 4. American standard AC and DC charging port pin definition (power supply side view)

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Table 6. J1772 AC CP signal handshake standard

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Figure 5. American standard DC vehicle pile handshake reference circuit (divided into L1 and L2)

4. European Charging Standards

The voltage range in Europe is similar to that in China, and the charging interface CCS2 is in line with the American standard CCS1, but there are still some changes. The main difference is that the standard household electricity in Europe is 230 volts, which is almost twice the voltage used in North America, so there is no Level 1 charging in Europe. The maximum voltage for European standard AC is 480V AC and the maximum current is 63A; The maximum DC voltage is 1000V DC and the maximum current is 200A DC (based on the 2014 version of data).

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Table 7. Rated values of European AC/DC charging interfaces

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Figure 6. Definition of European AC/DC charging port pins (power supply end view)

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Figure 7: Reference circuit for handshake of European AC charging vehicle piles

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Table 8. IEC61851 AC CP signal handshake standard

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Figure 8. Reference circuit for handshake of European DC charging vehicle piles

5. Japanese Charging Standards

Japan’s charging standards are quite special. AC adopts the American standard J1772, while DC adopts the CHAdeMO standard. J1772 has been mentioned before. Let’s mainly talk about the CHAdeMO standard.

CHAdeMO is a DC plug jointly developed by five Japanese automakers and attempted to promote it as a global standard starting in 2010, but it has not been widely adopted. Despite this, there are currently many countries or regions using the CHAdeMO interface. In addition to Japan, most of them are installed in Europe (mostly in Northern Europe), the United States and South Korea. There are two versions of the CHAdeMO standard. The first version supports charging up to 62.5 kW and a maximum charging current of 125 A; while the revised CHAdeMO 2.0 specification allows up to 400 kW.

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Figure 9. CHAdeMO pin definition and description (power supply side view)

6. Tesla Charging Standards

The common charging standard in the United States is J1772, with the only exception being Tesla, which has developed a dedicated charging interface for Tesla electric vehicles. Tesla announced its NACS standard on November 11, 2022.

NACS is an AC/DC integrated socket, but due to interface limitations, NACS also has a limitation that it cannot be compatible with AC three-phase electricity. This also leads to the inability to use three-phase AC power in countries or regions such as China and Europe.

The interface circuit of NACS is exactly the same as that of CCS. For the onboard control and detection unit (OBC or BMS) circuit that was originally a CCS standard interface, there is no need to redesign and layout it, and it can be fully compatible. This is beneficial for the promotion of NACS.

Of course, there are no restrictions on communication and it is fully compatible with the requirements of IEC 15118.

The maximum voltage of NACS is 1000V DC and the maximum current is 400A DC; Communication is consistent with J1772.

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Figure 10. NACS Pin Definition (Power Supply End View)

Understanding The Diversity Of The Five Electric Vehicle Charging Standards Worldwide

Figure 11. NACS vehicle pile handshake reference circuit

Overall, various charging standards are applicable to different countries and regions, and the interfaces, communication protocols, and certification requirements are also different, which brings some difficulties to the production and sales of automobiles, as well as the production and construction of charging piles. Automobile manufacturers and charging facility manufacturers and operators need to choose appropriate charging interfaces based on the standard requirements of different regions to provide products that meet the regulatory requirements and compatibility of the regions they sell, and better serve users.

It should be noted that due to the continuous development of the electric vehicle market and technological advancements, charging standards are also constantly being updated and evolved. Therefore, new charging standards may emerge in the future, and car manufacturers and charging facility operators need to closely monitor market trends, adjust their strategies and layout in a timely manner to adapt to market changes.

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